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Henry Madden Library

Step 10 - Final Paper and Citation Style Guide

Key Points
  1. Citing is the process of giving credit to the sources you use in writing a paper
  2. Know when and how to cite your sources
  3. Use the citation style required by your instructor, or choose one apporpriate to the discipline.

Citation Manual/Guide

You have almost completed your research assignment, but first you must make sure you are properly citing your sources so the reader understands which ideas are yours and which ideas come from an outside source.

As previously mentioned, you must cite a work in two places in your paper; in the text where you refer to another author's work, and at the end of the paper in the References / Bibliography / Works Cited page.

There are many citations styles but the three main ones that you are likely to see, depending on what discipline you are writing your paper for, are the APA, MLA, or Chicago Style. It is important to correctly use one of these guides to reference your paper properly.

Citation Styles

APA (American Psychological Association)


For social science disciplines such as psychology, anthropology and sociology.


Example of in-text citation:


… twenty percent of the students needing help (Varela, 2008, p.3).


Example of reference page citations:


Young-Bruehl, E. (1988).Anna Freud: A biography. New York: Summit Books.


Jorna, K. (2002). Educating information professionals in a multicultural information society.Library Review, 51(3/4), 157-163.


MLA (Modern Language Association)


For English and some humanities courses.


Example of in-text citation:


… the author missed important behaviors in the character (O’Sullivan 26).


Example of work cited page citations:


Albom, Mitch.The Five People You Meet in Heaven. New York: Hyperion, 2003.


Huang, Alexander. “Shakespeare, Performance, and Autobiographical Interventions.”Shakespeare Bulletin24.2 (2006): 31 pars.


Chicago Style


For history and some humanities courses.


Example of in-text citation:


Footnote or Endnote


6. Alton Pryor,Classic Tales in California History(Roseville, CA: Stagecoach, 2000) 57.


Example of Reference citations:


Pryor, Alton.Classic Tales in California History. Roseville, CA: Stagecoach, 2000.

To help create citations:

Diana Hacker's Research and Documentation Online has lots of information to help you.

Many journal databases like EBSCO, Proquest & CSA generate citations in the style you choose. Database Citation Generator

The Ohio State University has compiled some nice pages with examples of citations from many different sources.

Books in The Henry Madden Library

These online generators format citations and bibliographies. We recommend:


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